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重点语法和常用句型 1. manage to do 解析: 解析:manage to do 意思为成功做某事,即经过努力达到了目的,后接动词不定式,不接 v-ing,相当于 succeed in doing sth。 练*: 练*: 1) If you manage to get in touch with Mr. Smith, the problem will be solved easily because he is an expert in this field. 如果 你设法与 Smith 先生取得联系,这个问题将会被很容易解决,因为他是这个领域的专家。 2) Do you think you can manage to get us some tickets?_____ 你看能想办法给我们搞几张票吗? ? 2. as…as… 解析: 解析: 1) as...as 意为"和……一样", 表示同级的比较。 使用时要注意第一个 as 为副词, 第二个 as 为连词。 其基本结构为: A…+as+ adj./ adv. +as B, 为了避免重复,我们常用 that, those 和 one 一类的代词代替 as 后重复前面出现的名词。 2) 其否定句: A…+not +as +adj./adv +as B.=A…+not +so +adj./adv. +as B, 表示 A、 两者程度不同, A 不如 B 那么……。 B 即 (翻译)1)On average, it is said, visitors spend only ___ half as much ___ in a day in Leeds(利兹,英国城市)as in London. 据说,游客*均在利兹的花销只有伦敦的一半。 (06 年四级真题) 2) The land area of China is more than __twenty times larger than that of Japan___.中国的面积超过日本二十倍 大。 (四级模拟训练) (改错)1) He is three times old as me.(在 old 前面加 as)____ 在 2) The exhibition this time attracted two as many visitors as last time. (把 two 变成 twice)____ 把 (填空)The building is four times as high as that one.= The building is three times higher than that one. = The building is four times the height of that one.= The height of the building is four times that of that one. 3. When it comes to… 解析:when it comes to 意思是“当提到,说到;至于” 解析: ,相当于 concerning。需要注意的是 to 是介词,后面如果出现动 词需要加 v-ing 的形式。 练*: 练*: 1) People will think of vast stretches of fields in a quiet and peaceful atmosphere ___when it comes to life in the countryside.___当提到乡村生活,人们就会想到安静*和气息里的大片田地。 2) Age is no criterion __when it comes to changing your life __ . In fact, change is what keeps us young. 提及改变你的生 活,年龄并非标准。事实上,改变使我们永葆青春。 3) Women are not smarter than man when it comes to emotional intelligence , nor are men smarter than women. 说到情 商,女人不比男人更聪明,男人也不比女人更聪明。 4. 部分否定 解析: 解析:英语中的部分否定主要有如下几种形式: 1) all 的否定形式: not all……(all ……not)意思为“并非都……(不是所有的都) ” Not all men can be masters. = All men cannot be masters.并非人人都能当头头。 2) every 的否定形式:not every…(every……not) 意思为“不是每……都” Not every book is educative. = every book is not educative.不是每本书都有教育意义。 Not everyone likes this book。并非人人都喜欢这本书。 练*: 练*: (翻译) 1)__Not all birds can fly.__= __All birds can’t fly._=___Some birds can’t fly.__不是所有的鸟都会飞。 ’ 2) Speaking of hamburgers not all Americans like them .说及汉堡,并非所有美国人都爱吃。 3) Not all people share the same interests , but we can still make friends with people who do not have our interests. 人的 兴趣不尽相同, 但我们仍能和那些与我们兴趣不同的人交朋友。 (选择)I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with ___A___. A. everything B. anything C. something D. nothing 5. 动词不定式 解析: 主语、表 解析: 动词不定式的语法功能是四、六级的常考内容。不定式在句子中可做主语 表语、宾语、 主语 宾 定语、状语 宾语补语。 状语和宾语补语 练*: 定语 状语 宾语补语 练*: 1) The bank is reported in the local newspaper ___B____ in broad daylight yesterday. (CET4:01-1-63) A. robbed B. to have been robbed C. being robbed D. having been robbed 2) Mr. Smith advised us to withdraw _____C______.(CET4:93-1-58) A. so that to get not involved B. so as to get not involved C. so as not to get involved D. so that not to get involved 3) The mother didn’t know who __C___ for the broken glass. (CET4:02-1-64) A. blamed B. would blame C. to blame D. be blamed 4) __A____ a teacher in a university, it’s necessary to have at least a master’s degree. (CET4:95-1-48)

A. To become B. Become C. One becomes D. One becoming 5) With the development in science and technology man can make various flowers __B___ before their time. (CET4:01-6-36) A. be bloomed B. bloom C. bloomed D. blooming 6.限定性与非限定性定语从句: 限定性定语从句 .限定性与非限定性定语从句: 1. that 即可代表事物也可代表人,which 代表事物;它们在从句中作主语或宾语,that 在从句中作宾语时常可省略关系 词,which 在从句中作宾语则不能省略。而且,如果 which 在从句中作“不及物动词+介词”的介词的宾语,注意介词不 要丢掉,而且介词总是放在关系代词 which 的前边,但有的则放在它原来的位置。 2. who 和 whom 引导的从句用来修饰人,分别作从句中的主语和宾语,whom 作宾语时,要注意它可以作动词的宾语也 可以作介词的宾语 3. where 是关系副词,用来表示地点的定语从句 This is the place where he works.这是他工作的地点 4. when 引导定语从句表示时间 This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间 5. whose 是关系代词,修饰名词作定语,相当于所修饰成分的前置所有格 非限定性定语从句: 非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明,通常和主句间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍 可成立。 练* : 1)I've never been to Beijing, but it is the place ___. (99/06/55) A)that I want to visit it most B) where I'd like to visit C) in which I'd like to visit D) I most want to visit D) 题意:我从未去过北京,但它是我最想参观的地方。 解析:此句的先行词虽为指地点的 place,但定语从句中缺宾语,且 visit 是及物动词,故只能选 A。 These people once had fame and fortune; now ____ is left to them is utter poverty. (02/6/61) A) all that C) all which B) all what D) that all B) 题意:这些人一度曾拥有名声和财富, 现在剩下的只有贫穷了。 解析:that is left to them 作 all 的定语从句, 故选 A。 2) 改错: (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) This is the mountain village (which/that) I visited last year. (对) I"ll never forget the days (which/that) I spent in the countryside. *惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。 7.It’s about time. 解析:It is (high, about) time …为固定句式,使用虚假语气结构(过去时/should do),表示“该到…… 解析: . 的时候了”。例如,It’s time that you left/you were leaving/you should leave. 练*: 练*: It's already 5 o'clock now. Don't you think it's about time ________? A) we are going home C) we went home B) we go home D) we can go home 答案:C 此外,it is time 句式 也可使用于形式宾语 It’s + time for sb to do sth / for doing 形式。 练*:It is time for you to call Mr. Smith./It’s time for your calling to Mr. Smith. (使该给史密斯打电话的时候了) 8. come to do sth 解析:come to do sth 逐渐/终于…,后跟 realize/ understand/ love/ like 等表示心理状态的动词 解析: 练*: 1. It is often in overcoming hardships that we come to appreciate the value of life 练*: 翻译:通常在克服困难的过程中我们才能体会生命的价值。 2. With repeated hackers’ attacks on our system, we have come to realize the necessity of hiring a computer-security expert 翻译:在黑客反复攻击了我们系统之后,我们终于认识到聘请一位网络安全专家的必要性。 9. Chance are that … 解析: chance are that…意义为“可能” 解析 ,相当于 probably, maybe,为表示判断的句式。 练*: 练*:1. Chances are that the football champion team will be brought forth between these two teams. 翻译:足球冠军很有可能将会在那两个队伍中产生 2. Chances are she's already heard the news. 翻译:可能她已经知道这消息了。 10.It occurred to sb to do/that… . 解析:It occurred to sb to do/that…为固定句型,表示“突然想起……” 练*: 练*: 1.It never occurred to me _____ you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind. A. which B. what C. that D. if 解析:考查固定句型。It occurs/occurred to sb that ...是固定句型,意思是:突然想起......,其中 that 引导主语从句,选 C。 2.It suddenly occurred to me that I knew how to solve that problem. 翻译:我突然想起我知道怎样解决那个问题

11. with 的用法 练*: 练*: 1._____production up by 60 %, the company has had another excellent year. A. As B. For C. With D. Through 解析: 答案 C。 本题考查介词 with 的复合结构“with + n / pron + prep. phrase(介词短语)”的用法。 “as”作为连词, 意为“因 为、由于”,其后必须跟从句;作为介词,意为“作为”,从语法和句意方面都不能用。而 for 和 through 在这里从语法和 句意方面也不能用。在这里应用 with,意思是“因为、由于”。 句意是:由于生产(产品)上升了 60% ,这家公司又 有了一个辉煌年。 2. ________two exams to worry about , I have to work really hard this weekend A. Besides B. With C. As for D. Because of 解析:答案 B。从句子的结构看这里必须要填一个介词,而不能填连词,“as for” 意思是“至于、关于”;because of 意 思是“由于、因为”,其后不能跟复合结构,所以不能选择 C 和 D。在所给的选项中只有 with 才符合构成“ with + n / pron + to do ”结构。句意是:由于担心这两门考试,本周末我得真的用功了。 3. ________ more and more forests damaged, some animals and plants are facing the danger of dying out . A. As B. For C. With D. By 解析:答案 C。此题考查 with 复合结构“with + n / pron +v-ed. ”的用法,在这里表示原因。as 和 for 常常引导的是一个 表示原因的句子,而介词 by 显然没有这种用法。句意是:由于越来越多的森林遭到破坏,一些动植物正面临着灭绝的 危险。 4.Many large cities, such as Liverpool and New York , have had experiments of this kind, ________ old factories turned into successful art centers. A. for B. with C .as D .like 解析:答案 B。本题也是考查 with 复合结构用法的,表示一种伴随情况。介词 for 与 as 虽具有“由于、因为” 之意,但 其后要跟从句,like 没有“由于、因为” 之意,应该排除 A、C、D,答案是 B。句意是:随着旧工厂被成功地改制为艺 术 中 心 , 许 多 大 城 市 ( 如 利 物 浦 和 纽 约 ) 都 做 着 这 方 面 的 尝 试。 5. ______so much homework to do , I won't have time to go to see the film tonight. A. With B. To C. For D. In 解析:答案 A。这里用介词 with 的复合结构作状语表示原因,而 to、for、in 则没有这种复合结构用法,故排除 B、C、 D,答案是 B。句意是:由于有许多家庭作业要去做,今晚我没有时间去看电影。 6._________and no way to reduce her pain and suffering from the terrible disease, the patient sought her doctor 's help to end her life .(2005 年江苏省高考试题) A .Having given up hope of cure B. With no hope for cure C . There being hope for cure D. In the hope of cure 解析:答案 B。此题考查 with 的复合结构作状语的用法。逗号前的内容作状语,该部分是由介词 with 构成的短语及 现在分词短语 suffering from the terrible disease 构成的,介词 with 有两个宾语,分别是 no hope for cure 和 no way to reduce her pain。句意是:这位病人由于没有治愈的希望和减轻其痛苦的方法,她饱受疾病煎熬,于是请求大夫结束她 的生命。 7. It was cold outside , the boy ran into the room ________ his nose red. A. to B. on C. in D. with 解析:答案 D。这个句子是考查 with 的复合结构用法的,用 with +名词(nose)+形容词(red)作状语表示伴随情况。 而 to、on 、in 作为介词则没有这种用法,故排除 A、B、C,答案为 D。句意是:外面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进了屋 子时,鼻子红红的。 8._______all the representatives (代表)still not there , the meeting was postponed for several months. A. Without B. With C. By D. Because 解析:答案 B。这里应填入一个介词结构以表示原因或状态,而在所给的选项中 without 具有否定意义,不能用在这 里;by 则表示方式、手段等;because 后则要跟从句,只有 with 具有这种用法,所以选 B。句意是:在代表仍然不在 场的情况下,会议被推迟了好几个月。 12. be used to doing / used to do 解析: ,介词 to 后接 doing 解析:become/be used to doing sth 表示“*惯于做某事” used to do sth 表示“过去常常做某事” 此外 be used to do 表示“……用来做……” ,是被动态。 练*: 练*: We used to play in the wheat fields on winter evenings, when we were children. 翻译:当我们还是小孩的时候,常常在冬天的夜晚到麦田里去玩。 Plastics can be used to make all kinds of things. 翻译:塑料能用来制造各种各样的东西。

I'm used to having a cup of coffee before dinner. 翻译:我*惯吃饭前喝杯咖啡。 13. 虚拟语气 解析: 解析:用 if 条件从句表示的虚拟条件,是虚拟条件最普通的方式。 1)虚拟现在时表示与现在事实相反的假设,其 if 从句的谓语形式用动词的过去式(be 一般用 were),主句用 would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形 2) 虚拟过去时是表示与过去事实相反的假设, 从句的谓语形式用过去完成时即 had+过去分词, if 主句用 would / should / could / might + have +过去分词 3)虚拟将来时是表示与将来的相反的假设,If 从句的谓语形式用一般过去式或用 were to / should +动词原形,主句用 would / should /could/ might +动词原形 练*: 1.You would not have failed if (按照我的指令去做).(2009.12) 练*: 【答案】you had followed my instructions 或者 you had followed my orders 2.她认为如果她将来有了工作,她就不能经常和她的朋友们见面了。____________________________ 【答案】she thinks that if she were to get a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.(1996年1月四级第 44题) 3.如果我是你,我就和她结婚。______________________________________ 【答案】If I were in your position I would marry her. 4.If I had had enough time, I___ my work. A. would finish B. must have finished C. would have finished D. had finished【答案】 C 5.Ten minutes earlier, they ___ the plane. A. will catch B. would catch C. would have caught D. will have caught 【答案】 C 6.Mr Green requires that the students ___ a composition every other week. 【答案】A A. write B. written C. would write D. will write 14. It is/系动词(seem/look..) +adj+that... 系动词( 系动词 例句:So it's too bad the flying saucer landed on April 14, 1956. (L18) 例句 解析: it 例句中省略了 that, 类似的形容词还有: strange; natural; obvious; true; good; 解析: 这是主语从句的一种, 是形式主语, wonderful; possible; unlikely; quite; unusual; certain; evident; worth-while; surprising; interesting; astonishing, clear, necessary, likely, important , essential,etc. 1.她是否能来令人怀疑。______________________________________ It is doubtful whether she will be able to come. 2.他拒绝和你说话真是令人惊讶。 ______________________________________ It was really astonishing that he refused to talk to you . 3.周末之前,他应该到这里是必要的。______________________________________ It is essential that he should be here by the weekend . 4.很明显我们不能这样下去了。______________________________________ It seems obvious that we can not go on like this. 15. as though/if 用法 解析: 解析:as if 与 as though 是一组同义词,两者意思相同,用法也相同,只是在口语中人们多半会用 as if。 1)as though/if 从句用陈述语气的情况 当说话者认为句子所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时。如: It sounds as if it is raining. 听起来像是在下雨。 He talks as if he is drunk. 从他谈话的样子来看他是醉了。 2)as though/if 从句用虚拟语气的情况 当说话人认为句子所述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时。从句虚拟语气动词时态的形式如下: a)如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。如: He talks as if he knew where she was.他说话的样子,好像他知道她在哪里似的。 b)从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。如: He talks about Rome as if he had been there before.他说起罗马来好像他以前去过罗马似的。 c)从句表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/could/might+动词原形”。如: He opened his mouth as if he would say something. 他张开嘴好像要说什么。 练*: 1.她看起来好像年轻了十岁(翻译) 。She looks as if she were ten years younger. 练*: 2.他们谈话的感觉好像已经认识了好多年了(翻译) 。They talked as if they had been friends for years. 3. He felt as if he alone ___ what had happened.

A. be responsible to B. should be responsible to C. be responsible for 4. He is a stupid man. But he acts as though he ______ a wise man. A. is B. were C. should be D. seems like 答案:B 16. 独立主格结构

D. were responsible for 答案:D

解析: 解析 独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中,其作用相当于一个状语从句,常用来表示时间、原因、条件、行为方式 或伴随情况等。主要有如下几种形式: 1) 名词/主格代词+现在分词,名词/主格代词与现在分词之间是主谓关系。如: The girl staring at him (= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。 2)名词/主格代词+过去分词,名词/主格代词与过去分词之间是动宾关系。如: The problems solved (= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。 3)名词/主格代词+不定式,名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。如: He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。 4)名词/主格代词+形容词,如: So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。 5)名词/主格代词+副词,如:He put on his sweater wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。 6) 名词/主格代词+介词短语, The boy goes to the classroom, book in hand. 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。 如 7) There being +名词(代词) ,如:There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。 7)It being +名词(代词) ,如:It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休 息。 注意:1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系。 3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 4)独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词 with。如:Don’t sleep with the windows open. 别开着窗睡觉。 练*: 练*: 1.Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon. A. its B. whose C. which D. that 答案:A 2.He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C.which D. that 答案:B 3. There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners. A. which B. them C. whom D. that 答案:B 17. Too...to.../...enough to... 解析: 解析: 1)too...to...句型形式是肯定的,但表达否定意义,表示"太……而不能……"。too 的后面接形容词或副词的原 级,to 的后面接动词原形,构成动词不定式。 例如:He is too young to join the army.他年龄太小,不能参军。 2)...enough to 表示“...足够...能...” ,这里 enough 作副词使用,修饰形容词和副词,必须放在它们之后,如: I'm old enough to handle my own affairs. 我已经长大了,可以处理我自己的事情。 3)too...to...结构与... enough to...结构可以互换,将 too...to...结构转换为...enough to...结构时要注意: ①enough 前的形容词或副词须是 too 前面形容词或副词的反义词; ②...enough to ...句式须用否定式; ③too...to...结构有逻辑主语时,...enough to...结构也要加上逻辑主语。例如: She is too young to do the work.→She isn't old enough to do the work. 练*: 练*: 1. Millie was too _____ to work out the problem. A.careful B.careless C.carefully D.carelessly 答案:B 2.他们走得不够快跟不上我(翻译) 。They cannot walk fast enough to catch up with me. 3.情况相当严重,他必须要要采取应对措施了(翻译) 。 The situation is serious enough for him to take measures to deal with it. 18. till/until 用法 解析: 解析:1)until 和 till 都可用作连词和介词,用来引导从句和构成介词短语,充当时间状语。两者在一般情况下可互换使用, 但 until 比 till 更正式;用于句首时,多用 until。

2)until 和 till 用于肯定句时,只和持续性动词连用,意为“到……为止”。until 和 till 用于否定句时,通常与瞬间动词连用,也 可与持续性动词连用,意为“直到……才”。 练*: 练*: 1.我将一直等直到他回来。 (翻译)I will wait till he comes back. 2.直到他爸爸回家杰克才上床睡觉。 (翻译)Jack didn't go to bed till his father came home. 3.直到获得有关当局的批准我们才能发行那部电影。 (翻译) We can't release the film until we have the approval from the authority concerned. 19.过去分词作定语 过去分词作定语 解析: 解析: 1)过去分词短语作后置定语,通常放在被修饰的名词之后,它的作用相当于一个定语从句。 2)过去分词作前置定语,单个的过去分词作定语,通常放在被修饰的名词之前,表示被动和完成意义。 a)被动意义:an honored guest 一位受尊敬的客人 b)完成意义:a retired teacher 一位退休的教师 练*: 练*: 1)______________are now being taken good care of in the hospital.受伤的士兵现正在医院受到良好的照料。答案:The injured soldiers 2)They are cleaning___________ in the yard.他们正在打扫院子里的落叶。答案:the fallen leaves 2.现在分词用法 现在分词用法 解析: 解析:1)当现在分词作定语,表示正在进行的或主动的动作。也可以说明被修饰词的性质和特征,此时可换成相应的 定语从句。例如: There was a terrible noise following the sudden burst of light. 又如: I was satisfied with the exciting speech. 2)现在分词作状语时,常可以表达伴随、原因、结果、时间、条件、让步情况,如:表伴随:伴随状语出现的条 件是由一个主语发出两个动作或同一个主语处于两种状态,或同一个主语发出一个动作时又伴随有某一种状态。伴随 状语的逻辑主语一般情况下必须是全句的主语,伴随状语与谓语动词所表示的动作或状态是同时发生的.例如:The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. 练*: 练*: 1.In April, 2009, President Hu inspected the warships in Qingdao, _________ the 60th anniversary of the founding of the PLA Navy. A. marking B. marked C. having marked D. being marked 答案:A 2. A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city, _________ all four people on board. A. killed B. killing C. kills D. to kill 答案:B 3.______ in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. A. Waiting B. To wait C. Having waited D. To have waited 答案:c 4.(改错)Opening the window, a butterfly flew into my study. (误) Opening the window, I saw a butterfly flying into my study. (正) 20. 部分倒装句 解析: 解析:倒装分为全部倒装和部分倒装,部分倒装的用法主要有以下几点: 1) hardly, in no way, little, scarcely, seldom, never, no more, no longer, not, not only, no sooner, not only … (but also),not until… 等具有否定意义的词或词组位于句首,句子用部分倒装。 Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.小约翰直到昨天才改变了主意。 2) only +状语或状语从句置于句首,句子用部分倒装。例如: Only in the country can you learn the “true English”.只有在这个国家你才能学到“真正的英语” 。 3) so / such...that 结构中的 so 或 such 位于句首可以构成部分倒装句,表示强调 so /such 和 that 之间的部分。例如: So unreasonable was his price that everybody startled. 他的要价太离谱,令每个人都瞠目结舌。 练*: 练*: 1.我刚到家就下起了雨。 (翻译)No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 2.我很少乘公共汽车*唷 (翻译)Seldom do I go to work by bus. 3..Only after liberation___ to be treated as human beings. A A.did they begin B. they had begun C.they did begin D. had they begun 4.Not only ___to stay at home, but he was also forbidden to see his friends. D

A.he was forcing B. he was forced C.was he forcing D. was he forced 5.Not until his father was out of prison to school. _______. C A.can John go B. John can go C. could John go D. John could go 6.Never before __seen such a stupid man. C A.am I B. was I C. have I D. shall I 7.Rarely ___about such a silly thing. A A.have I heard of B. I have heard of C.I have been hearing of D. have I heard from 21. “the +比较级,the+比较级 句式。 比较级, 比较级”句式 比较级 比较级 句式。 1)这种结构通常从句在前,主句在后,即:第一个 the+比较级为状语从句,第二个 the+比较级为主句。句型中的两个 “the”都是指示副词,两个“the”的后面都必须跟形容词或副词的比较级形式。 2)这种结构中的谓语动词一般情况下:主句用将来时态,从句用一般现在时态(代替将来时态) 。例如: The sooner you start, the sooner you will finish.你开始的越早,你就完成得越快。 练*: 练*: 1.空气越热,它就上升得越快。 (翻译)The hotter the air is, the more quickly it will rise. 2.一个人越有学问,就往往越谦虚。 (翻译)The more learned a man is ,the more modest he usually is. 22. so...that/such...that/ so that 结构 解析: 解析: 1)so... that...句型中的 so 是副词,常常用来修饰形容词或副词,常用句型为:主语+谓语+so+adj. / adv. + that 从句,翻译成 "“如此...以至于... ”例如: He is so young that she can't look after herself.他太小了以至于不能照顾自己。 2)such... that...句型中,such 修饰名词,意思也是“如此……以致于……” 但当名词之前有 many、much、(a) few、 (a) little 等词修饰时,句子中要用“so...that...”而不能用“such...that...”。例如: He had so much money that he can buy what he wanted 他有如此多的前以至于可以买任何他想要的东西。 又如:She is such a nice girl that everybody likes her. 她如此善良每个人都喜欢她。 3) so 与 that 也可连起来写,即变成:... so that ...(以便 / 为了……),引导目的状语从句。例如: I got up early so that I could catch the early bus.我起来很早为了赶上早班车。 练*: 练* 1.这个男孩跑得如此之快以至于我追不上他。 (翻译)The boy ran so fast that I couldn't catch him. 2.杯子里剩的水实在太少了我不能再喝了。 (翻译)There is so little water in the glass that I can't drink any more. 3.你现在必须睡觉以便明天能早起。 (翻译)You must sleep now so that you can get up early. 4.Smith has made _______ that we are all surprised . A. such much progress B. so fine a progress C. such a great progress as D. so much progress 答案:D 5.—_________fine day it is today! —Yes,the sunshine is__________beautiful that I'd like to go swimming in the sea. A. How, such B. What a, very C. How, so D. What a, so 答案:D 6.Miss Gao asked a question, but it was__________that nobody could answer it. A.very difficult B. too difficult C. difficult enough D. so difficult 答案:D 23. Rather than 结构 解析: 解析 1)连接两个名词或代词 He is an explorer rather than a sailor. 与其说他是一个海员,不如说他是一个探险者。 注意:rather than 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与 rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。 2) 连接两个形容词 The sweater she bought was beautiful rather than cheap. 与其说她买的这件羊毛衫便宜不如说它漂亮。 3) 连接两个介词(短语)或动名词 We will have the meeting in the classroom rather than in the great hall. 我们是在教室里开会,不是在大厅里。 4) 连接两个分句 We should help him rather than he should help us. 是我们应该帮助他而不是他应该帮助我们。 5) 连接两个不定式 I decided to write rather than (to) telephone. 我决定写信而不打电话。 注意:rather than 后接不定式时,不定式可以带 to,也可以不带 to, 如上句。但 rather than 位于句首时,则只能接不带 to 的不定式。如: Rather than allow the vegetables to go bad, he sold them at half price. 他唯恐蔬菜烂掉,把它们以半价卖掉了。 6) 连接两个动词

He ran rather than walked. 他是跑来的,而不是走来的。 注意: 这里 rather than 后用了 walked, 而没有用 walk, 表示客观事实, 而不是主观愿望。 如果换成 walk, 则作“宁愿…… 而不愿 ……”解。 7)rather than 与 would 连用时,构成“would rather...than...”句式,意思是“宁愿……而不愿……”,表示主观愿望,即在 两者之中选择其一,谓语动词用原形,例如: She'd rather study than watch the awful plays.她宁可学*都不爱看那糟糕的剧集。 练*:(翻译) 练* 1.是你而不是我要去要野营。You rather than I are going to go camping. 2.喜欢唱歌,而不喜欢跳舞。She enjoys singing rather than dancing. 3.滚音乐与其说是一种音乐力量,倒不如说是对社会问题表示看法的一种方式。 Rock music is really a sociological expression rather than a musical force. 24. be-型虚拟式 型虚拟式 解析: 解析:be-型虚拟式是以动词原形表示的,即不管主语是什么人称,动词一律用原形,如果动词为被动态,则助动词 be 也一律用原形。be-型虚拟式的主要用法如下: 1)用于表示命令、决定、建议等词语之后的 that-分句中,其前可加 should 一词,也可省略。 be-型虚拟式的这一用法又有以下三种情况: a)用在 decide, decree, demand, insist, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, vote 等动词之后的 that-分句中。例如: He ordered that all books be sent at once. We propose that somebody neutral take the chair. b) 用在 advisable, appropriate, desirable, essential, fitting, imperative, important, impossible, necessary, obligatory, proper 等形容词之后的 that-分句中。例如: It is essential that all the facts be examined first. It is necessary that he come back without delay. c) 用在 decision, decree, demand, instruction, order, requirement, resolution 等名词之后的 that-分句中。例如: The board has given instructions that the agent fly to Boston. We were faced with the demand that this tax be abolished. 2)用于 if, though, etc 引导的分句中 be-型虚拟式能用于由 if, though, whatever, lest, so long as 等引导的分句中表示推测、让步、防备等含义。例如: If he be found guilty, John shall have the right of appeal. If the rumor be true, everything is possible. 3) 用于某些公式化语句中 be-型虚拟式用于某些公式化语句中可表示祝愿、诅咒、禁止等意义。例如: Long live the People’s Republic of China! (^-^) God bless you! 练*:用动词的适当形式填空 练* 1. She insisted that she _______(go) to the south for her holiday. 2. Congress has decided that the present law _______(be) maintained. 3. I thought it advisable that an armed guard _______(stand) in readiness. 4. It was appropriate that this tax _______(be) abolished. 5. Your advice that she _______(wait) till next week is reasonable. 6. Their decision was that the school _______(remain) closed. 7. Whatever _______(be) his defense, we cannot tolerate this disloyalty. 8. Whether she _______(be) right or wrong, she will have my unswerving support. 答案:全部填动词原形 25. smell/taste of 解析: 解析: smell/taste of +名词”表示“闻起来/尝起来像…/有…样的味道” “ 练*:用 smell/taste of 和括号中的词仿照例句填充下列各句 练* 1.——Something’s got burnt! ——You are right. The kitchen smells of burnt rubber.(kitchen, burnt rubber) 2.——Would you like to try this? ——What is it? It smells of rose.(it, rose) 3.——What do you think of this dish?——What is it made of? It tastes of fish.(it, fish) 4.——Waiter! Do you call this thing coffee? It tastes of gasoline.(it, gasoline)